Friday, 4 October 2013
Religious and sectarian conflict
While Punjabis represent the majority of the population, Pakistan is home to a constellation of communities based on regional, religious, or historical identities: Bengalis, Baluchs, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Sunni, Shia and Ahmadi Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, Hindus, Christians and Jews, Muhajirs and refugees from Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Gujarat. Sectarian and religious violence have been a recurrent feature of Pakistan’s history since 1947, both in the form of violent conflict between religious communities, and in the form of one-sided violence against religious minorities. Inter-religious conflicts surfaced as early as in the early 1950s, when religious parties, and in particular the Jamaat-e-Islami, called for excluding Ahmadiyya community from Islam. Ahmadis have consistently experienced severe discrimination both from the government and from other Muslim sects. In 1974, the Pakistani parliament declared Ahmadis as non-Muslims, while their religious freedom was further curtailed in 1984 by a highly repressive military ordinance issued by General Zia. In Pakistan, Hindus are generally second-class citizens facing daily structural violence punctuated by occasional episodes of mass anti-Hindu violence and massacres, such as in 1950 and in 1964 and 1971 in East Pakistan. Formerly peaceful Shia-Sunni relations were shattered by military ruler Zia ul-Haq’s sectarian Sunni-Islamisation agenda, which fit into the regional context of opposition of Iran’s Islamic revolution, and the Iran-Iraq war, where Saddam Hussein’s Iraq was then supported by the US, Pakistan’s ally.
The radicalisation of Sunni religious movements and their increasing sectarianism through Saudi funding and patronage was ignored because of Saudi-Arabia’s ties with the Pakistani government and its US ally, while Pakistani Shias became increasingly sectarian under Iranian influence. Sectarian conflict further escalated after the Taliban victory in Afghanistan, as a pattern of assassinations of sect leaders and activists emerged. After 1997, mass killings of civilians on a sectarian basis became more frequent. Sectarian violence has involved groups on both sides, including the Shia group Sipah-e Muhammad Pakistan (SMP; the Army of Muhammad) created in 1991. However, anti-Shia violence has been on the rise, and since the 1990s there has been marked anti-Shia violence perpetrated armed militant groups with ties to Saudi Arabia operating in Pakistan [Abou Zahab 2002]. These Sunni armed groups include and Sipah-i Sahaba Pakistan (SSP; the Sunni Pakistan’s Army of the Prophet’s Companions) established in 1985, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LF – The Army of Jhangvi – 1990), Tehrik Nifaz Shariat-I Muhammadi (TNSM; Movement for Protection of Muhammad’s Religious Law – 1994) and the Lashkar-e-Taiba (The Army of the Pure – 1998). Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LF) is responsible for many anti-Shia attacks, including targeted assassinations, shootings and bomb attacks against Shia communities in Punjab, Karachi and Quetta.
These armed groups have also been involved in violence against non-Muslims. In August 2009, a mob guided by Sipah-e-Sahaba and Lashkar-e-Jhangvi attacked Christians on alleged desecration of Qur’an in the city of Gojra (Toba Tek Singh district). In this episode , seven Christians were killed and 20 were injured, and 50 homes were burnt. Meanwhile, Christians and Hindus have suffered in retaliation to anti-Muslim incidents outside Pakistan, such the demolition of the Babri mosque in India, and the blasphemic cartoons published in Denmark.
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Thursday, 26 September 2013
It is the most alarming and destructive problem facing by Pakistan today.
The Martial law of General Zia ul haq, brought a lot of issues to the country in which religious extremism, militancy
And sectarianism has brought us to stand in destructive point.
Many religious groups were formed and established by the government authorities, and were financially and
Weaponry supported as well, for the Afghan war against former USSR (Russia).
Shia and Sunni conflict was also introduced to the region by General Zia-ul-haq.
Lashkar-e-Jhangwi, Sipah-e-Sahaba, Lashka-e-taiieba, and Jaish-e-Muhmmadwere formed and established to fight against Shia’s.
In this conflict many Shia’s and Sunni leaders have been killed. So far every group has their trained and well equipped military groups who are used against each others.
These groups were further supported by RAW, KGB, ISI and Mao sad, to create law and order problems.
In 1904 the great Khudaie khidmatgar (servants of God) was established against the British Army in leading of Hazrat Bacha khan (R.A), but it was based on non violence philosophy.
In 1994 Govt. of Dr, Najeeb ullah (president of Islamic republican of Afghanistan) was crushed down as communist governance by Taliban and ISI as they further make Amaraat-e-Islamia Afghanistan.
Due to this act up to date 32000 innocent Pashtuns are killed in this war.
In Pakistan many young people are used in militant organizations for armed attacks and suicide bombers.
The main cause and factor is their young age.
Which is almost the population of Pakistan is based 54% of youth, and 15-25 years are the age in which youth are highly emotional and can be convinced easily for the miss use trough Brain washing.
Also in ours Madrassa’s the teachers discuss the topics of “Jihad”, “heavens” and the former glory of Islam in such a way that this youth want to do some thing wonderful for making history and been mojahid and becomes suicide attacker.
we can act a vital role in promoting peace not after getting trainings but even in present condition as well. Awareness can act an important role in the promotion of peace and in the development of societies.
As mentioned awareness can act an important role in promotion of peace and development of societies.
Awareness is light and unworn ness in darkness, so we will aware the youth to know that our state is first, or simply first of all Pakistan. We should to contain the influence of such elements and groups who create law and order situations/issues.
Who are killing our innocent peoples, who are using Maddrassa’s not for the teaching of religious education but for create militants and suicide bombers. Only awareness can brought positive change in our society and awareness should be the priority.
Safeer Khan Durrani
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth. The tongue is covered with moist, pink tissue called mucosa. Tiny bumps called papillae give the tongue its rough texture. Thousands of taste buds cover the surfaces of the papillae. Taste buds are collections of nerve-like cells that connect to nerves running into the brain.
The tongue rolls the food into balls or boli (singular: 'bolus') and pushes them to the back of the buccal (mouth) cavity for swallowing.
The tongue is not considered as part of the respiratory system, mostly on account of it not assisting in breathing. It is part of the gastrointestinal (digestive) system. The tongue helps you to swallow, then peristaltic action propels food, now called a bolus, down the esophagus.
Tasting and Processing the Food: Your tongue works along with our teeth, lips and mouth to taste, chew, and swallow food. Your teeth help your tongue grind food as the tongue mixes the food around your mouth. Without your teeth, lips, and the roof of your mouth, your tongue wouldn't be able to form sounds to make words. Saliva is needed for the proper functioning of the tongue. A dry tongue can't taste a thing so saliva helps the tongue and our sense of taste by keeping it wet. Saliva moistens food and helps to break it down, which in turn makes it easier for the tongue to push the food to the back of the mouth for swallowing.
The tongue is anchored to the mouth by webs of tough tissue and mucosa. The tether holding down the front of the tongue is called the frenum. In the back of the mouth, the tongue is anchored into the hyoid bone. The tongue is vital for chewing and swallowing food, as well as for speech.
The four common tastes are sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. A fifth taste, called umami, results from tasting glutamate (present in MSG). The tongue has many nerves that help detect and transmit taste signals to the brain. Because of this, all parts of the tongue can detect these four common tastes; the commonly described “taste map” of the tongue doesn’t really exist.
Thrush (candidiasis): Candida albicans (a yeast) grows over the surface of the mouth and tongue. Thrush can occur in almost anyone, but it occurs more often in people taking steroids or with suppressed immune systems, the very young, and the elderly.
Oral cancer: A growth or ulcer appears on the tongue and grows steadily. Oral cancer is more common in people who smoke and/or drink alcohol heavily.
Macroglossia (big tongue): This can be broken down into various categories based on the cause. These include congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, cancerous, and metabolic causes. Thyroid disease, lymphangiomas, and congenital abnormalities are among some of the causes of an enlarged tongue.
Geographic tongue: Ridges and colored spots migrate over the surface of the tongue, periodically changing its appearance. Geographic tongue is a harmless condition.
Burning mouth/burning tongue syndrome: a relatively common problem. The tongue feels burned or scalded, or strange tastes or sensations develop. Apparently harmless, burning mouth syndrome may be caused by a mild nerve problem.
Atrophic glossitis (bald tongue): The tongue loses its bumpy texture, becoming smooth. Sometimes this is due to anemia or a B vitamin deficiency.
Canker sores (aphthous ulcers): Small, painful ulcers appear periodically on the tongue or mouth. A relatively common condition, the cause of canker sores is unknown; they are unrelated to the cold sores caused by herpes viruses. Canker sores are not contagious.
Oral leukoplakia: White patches appear on the tongue that can’t be scraped off. Leukoplakia may be benign, or it can progress to oral cancer.
Hairy tongue: Papillae can overgrow the surface of the tongue, giving it a white or black appearance. Scraping off the papillae corrects this harmless condition.
Herpes stomatitis: The herpes virus can uncommonly cause cold sores on the tongue. Herpes virus cold sores are usually on the lip.
Safeer khan durrani,